印度的公立学校缺勤的教师太多。在这种情况下，如果教师在正常工作时间内无法在学校找到他/她，他/她就被视为缺勤，不包括兼职教师或志愿者教师。量化指标 “太多 “指的是 Chaudhury 等人（2006）的研究结果，即在对印度各地约 3000 所政府管理和资助的学校进行的三次突击访问中，发现有 25%的教师不在学校。与其他四个中低收入国家–与孟加拉国接壤的国家（16%）、厄瓜多尔（14%）、印度尼西亚（19%）和秘鲁（11%）–通过同样的方法和研究测算出的教师缺勤率相比，25%这个数字也具有很高的特点（Chaudhury等人，2006；世界银行2018）。为了与高收入国家的这一比率进行比较，美国国家教师质量委员会（NCTQ）发现，美国最大的40个大都会地区的教师在94%的时间内都在上班（NCTQ，2014）。我分析印度这一严重问题的目的是降低教师缺勤率，明确的目标是按照Chaudhury等人的方法，通过全国范围内的随机调查，到2022年将政府学校的教师缺勤率从25%降低到13%（首先，我从这个问题如何影响不同的利益相关者群体的角度来讨论教师高缺勤率的后果是什么。 受教师高缺勤率影响的一个非常重要的群体是学生。经验证据表明，教师高缺勤率对学生的成绩有负面影响。Kremer等人(2005)在印度的研究表明，教师缺勤率增加10%，学生出勤率就会下降1.8%，四年级学生的考试成绩就会下降0.02个标准差。Das等(2004)在赞比亚的研究表明，教师缺勤率增加5%，英语和数学一学年的平均成绩就会减少4%～8%的学习。Ehrenberg、Ehrenberg、Rees和Ehrenberg(1991)的一篇基础性论文发现，当普通教师缺勤时，学习程度降低，学生上学的积极性也会下降，学生的学习成绩可能受到影响。
Too many teachers are absent from government schools in India. In this context, the teacher is considered absent if he/she could not be found in the school during regular working hours and excludes part-time or volunteer teachers. The quantifier ‘too many’ refers to the findings by Chaudhury et al. (2006) that 25 percent of teachers were found to be absent from their schools during three, unannounced visits to about 3000 government run and financed schools across India. The 25 percent figure is also characterized as high in comparison to the absence rates of teachers, measured through the same methodology and study in four other lower and upper middle-income countries – in bordering Bangladesh (16 percent), Ecuador (14 percent), Indonesia (19 percent), and Peru (11 percent) (Chaudhury et al. 2006; World Bank 2018). For comparison to what this rate looks like in a high-income country, the National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ) found that teachers in 40 of the United States’ largest metropolitan areas were present for work 94 percent of the time (NCTQ, 2014). The goal of my analysis of this serious problem in India is to reduce teacher absenteeism rates, with the explicit objective of reducing the percentage of teachers absent in government schools from 25 percent to 13 percent by 2022, as measured through a nationwide random survey, following the methodology from Chaudhury et al. First, I address what the consequences of high teacher absence rates are, in terms of how this problem affects different groups of stakeholders. A very important group affected by high teacher absenteeism rates is students. Empirical evidence suggests that high rates of teacher absence has a negative impact on student outcomes. Kremer et al., (2005) demonstrated in India, that a 10 percent increase in teacher absence was associated with a 1.8 percent decrease in student attendance, and a 0.02 standard deviation decline in test scores of fourth grade students. Das et al. (2004) showed in Zambia that a 5 percent increase in teacher absentee rates reduced learning by 4 to 8 percent of average gains over the academic year in English and mathematics. A foundational paper by Ehrenberg, Ehrenberg, Rees and Ehrenberg (1991) found that to the extent that less learning occurs when regular teachers are absent, student motivation to attend school also falls, and student academic performance may suffer.